Short cuts of Language

welcome to english language online 

1.         I/we/they/you              have                 been     doing.
He/she/it                      has                   been     waiting
2.         For      two hours/a week/20 minutes/50years/five days/a long time/six months/ages
Since   8 o clock/Monday/12 May/April/1977/Christmas/lunchtime/they were at school
3.         I/you/he etc                 must                be        tired/hungry/at work etc
                                                Can’t               be        doing/coming/joking etc
                                                                        Do/go/know/have/drive/work etc
4.         For the past we use must have done/can’t have done.
I/you/he etc                 must                have                 been     asleep/at work etc
                                                Can’t               have                 been     doing/working etc
                                                                                                Done/gone/known/had etc
5.         I/you/he etc                 may     (not)    be                    true/in his office etc
                                                Might              be                    doing/working/having etc
                                                                        Do/know/have/want/drive/paint/type etc
6.         For the past we use may have (done) or might have (done).
I/you/he etc                 may     (not) have        been     asleep/at home etc
                                                Might                          been     doing/waiting etc
                                                                                    Done/known/had/seen etc
7.         Sometimes could has a similar meaning to may and might:
(1)               The phone is ringing. It could be Ali.
(2)               You could have left your bag in the shop. (=you may/might have left it…)
8.   He should be wearing helmet. /Those boys should not be playing football at this time.
9.         I am feeling sick. I should not have eaten so much cake.
She should not have been listening to our conversation. I was private.
10.       Prefer
            I prefer                        something                    to                                 something else
            I prefer                        doing something         to                                 doing something else
But       I prefer                        to do something          rather than                 (do) something else
1                    I prefer this coat to the coat you were wearing yesterday.
2                    I prefer driving to traveling by train.
3                    I prefer to drive rather than travel by train.
4                    Ali prefers to live in the country rather than (live) in a city.
11.       Would rather
            I would rather                                     do something              than     (do) something else
            I would rather stay at home tonight than go to the cinema.
12.       I would rather you did something:
            When you want somebody to do something, you can say I would rather you did something;
(1)               I would rather you came with us.
(2)               I would rather you did not know the real story.
(3)               Shall I tell them or would you rather they did not know?