welcome to english language online
1. I/we/they/you have been doing.
He/she/it has been waiting
2. For two hours/a week/20 minutes/50years/five days/a long time/six months/ages
Since 8 o clock/Monday/12 May/April/1977/Christmas/lunchtime/they were at school
3. I/you/he etc must be tired/hungry/at work etc
Can’t be doing/coming/joking etc
4. For the past we use must have done/can’t have done.
I/you/he etc must have been asleep/at work etc
Can’t have been doing/working etc
5. I/you/he etc may (not) be true/in his office etc
Might be doing/working/having etc
6. For the past we use may have (done) or might have (done).
I/you/he etc may (not) have been asleep/at home etc
Might been doing/waiting etc
7. Sometimes could has a similar meaning to may and might:
(1) The phone is ringing. It could be Ali.
(2) You could have left your bag in the shop. (=you may/might have left it…)
8. He should be wearing helmet. /Those boys should not be playing football at this time.
9. I am feeling sick. I should not have eaten so much cake.
She should not have been listening to our conversation. I was private.
I prefer something to something else
I prefer doing something to doing something else
But I prefer to do something rather than (do) something else
1 I prefer this coat to the coat you were wearing yesterday.
2 I prefer driving to traveling by train.
3 I prefer to drive rather than travel by train.
4 Ali prefers to live in the country rather than (live) in a city.
11. Would rather
I would rather do something than (do) something else
I would rather stay at home tonight than go to the cinema.
12. I would rather you did something:
When you want somebody to do something, you can say I would rather you did something;
(1) I would rather you came with us.
(2) I would rather you did not know the real story.
(3) Shall I tell them or would you rather they did not know?